Oil exploration and development wastewater is divided into two categories of oil exploration and development and petrochemicals, according to different sources, oil exploration and development of wastewater can be divided into oilfield production of water, drilling sewage, well water and mine drainage and so on.
Anaerobic biological treatment of sewage
Sewage anaerobic biological treatment, also known as "anaerobic digestion", is the use of anaerobic microorganisms to degrade the organic pollutants in the sewage, so that sewage purification method. The mechanism is the role of anaerobic bacteria in the decomposition of organic matter in the sludge, and finally produce methane and carbon dioxide and other gases.
Complete anaerobic digestion process can be divided into three stages:
① solid organic compounds in sludge by the anaerobic bacteria secreted by the extracellular hydrolysis of enzymes to be dissolved, and through the cell wall into the cells in the hydrolysis of enzyme catalysis, the polysaccharide, protein, fat hydrolysis into monosaccharide, amino acids , Fatty acids and the like;
② in the role of acid bacteria, the first stage of the product further degradation of the volatile organic acids for the more simple, such as acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid;
③ in the role of methanogens, the second phase of the volatile acid into methane and carbon dioxide. Factors affecting temperature, pH, nutrients, organic toxicants, anaerobic environment.
The advantages of anaerobic biological treatment: the energy consumed by the treatment process is low, the organic matter removal rate is high, the sedimentation sludge is small and easy to dehydrate, and the pathogenic bacteria can be killed without adding nitrogen, phosphorus and other nutrients. However, anaerobic reproduction is slow, toxic, sensitive to environmental conditions, the final product still need aerobic biological treatment. In recent years, often used in high concentrations of organic wastewater biological treatment.
Biological aerobic treatment of wastewater
Biological aerobic biological wastewater treatment methods are the main active pollution, biofilm, oxidation pond and so on.
The main mechanism of the oxidation pond is through the interaction of various species to form food chain ecosystem, which not only decompose bacteria and fungi, producers algae and other aquatic plants, but also consumers such as fish, shrimp, shellfish, waterfowl, etc. , The three division of labor, the sewage of pollutants for effective treatment and utilization. The main components of the oxidation pond processing system are facultative pond, aerobic pond, anaerobic pond and ripening pond. Each pond has its own function. Anaerobic pond is mainly used for high concentration of sewage pretreatment, generally in the front of the system; facultative pond and aerobic pond mainly used for low concentration of sewage treatment or in the anaerobic pond after BOD material further degradation; ripening pond for removal Pathogen. Oxidation pond as a high-efficiency, low-power sewage treatment technology, process: oil-air-floating - anaerobic ponds - aerobic pond - efflux.
In general, the microfiltration membrane is a larvae L diameter of 0.1 ~ 1.0llm, highly uniform, with the role of screening filter is characterized by a porous solid medium, mainly divided into two kinds of organic film and inorganic membrane.
Ultrafiltration is a membrane process between microfiltration and nanofiltration, with membrane pore diameters ranging from 0.05 to 1 nrn. Has been applied to the oil field water treatment, but the water treatment is still in the experimental stage.
3 reverse osmosis
Reverse osmosis membrane separation technology has been widely used around the world has become desalination, brackish water desalination, a variety of liquid separation and concentration of the main means.
Electrodialysis technology is the role of the DC electric field to the potential difference as the driving force, the use of ion-exchange membrane permeability, to achieve solution desalination, purification or purification.
Form China Sewage Treatment Engineering Network.